Wiki English



Vocabulary

farming [‘f??m??] занятие сельским [фермерским] хозяйством, ведение сельского [фермерского] хозяйства

rearing [?r??r??] разведение; выращивание; выведение; культивирование

hectare [‘hekte?], [-t??] / гектар — A hectare is a measurement of an area of land which is equal to 10,000 square metres, or 100 ares [[??(r)] — ар (мера земельной площади = 100 м2)]

environmentally friendly — не наносящий ущерба окружающей среде, не загрязняющий окружающую среду

organic farming [??’g?n?k ‘f??m??] — органическое земледелие / экологическое сельское хозяйство

cereals [‘s??r??lz] зерновые, злаки

oilseed [‘??lsi?d] масличное семя / семя масличной культуры [any of a number of seeds from cultivated crops yielding oil]

cattle [‘k?tl] крупный рогатый скот

sheep [?i?p] овца; баран The meat of the sheep is mutton. — Мясо овцыбаранина. A young sheep is a lamb. — Детёныш овцы — ягнёнок.

poultry [‘p?ultr?] домашняя птица; мясо домашней птицы

precipitation [pr?s?p?’te??n] осадки; выпадение осадков; атмосферные осадки; осаждение (твёрдых частиц)

lend oneself to — приспосабливаться, прилаживаться к (чему-л.), годиться для (чего-л.)

crop [kr?p] 1) сельскохозяйственная культура — a cultivated plant that is grown on a large scale commercially, especially a cereal, fruit, or vegetable 2) урожай; хлеб на корню harvest (plants or their produce [сельскохозяйственные продукты]) from a particular area

crop production — растениеводство (отрасль народного хозяйства, подсектор экономики, в который включены организации, занимающиеся растениеводством, напр., фермы, фруктовые сады, теплицы и питомники, выращивающие зерно, саженцы, виноград, деревья, семена и др.)

moor [mu? ], [m??] вересковая пустошь A moor is an area of open and usually high land with poor soil that is covered mainly with grass and heather. [heather [‘he??] вереск]

dairy cow дойная корова

grain [gre?n] зерно; хлебные злаки Syn: edible seed plants, cereal, wheat, rye, barley, oat, corn, maize, millet [[‘m?l?t] просо]

East Anglia [,i?st’??gl??] Восточная Англия (королевство на востоке Англии. Существовало в 6-8 вв., на его территории ныне находятся графства Норфолк и Суффолк — a region in eastern England that consists of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk [‘s?f?k], as well as parts of Essex [‘es?ks] and Cambridgeshire counties. [Cambridgeshire [‘ke?mbr?d????] — Кембридж(шир) (графство Англии)]

wheat [wi?t] пшеница winter wheat — озимая пшеница, spring / summer wheat — яровая пшеница

barley [‘b??l?] ячмень malting barley – пивоваренный ячмень

arable [‘?r?bl] пахотный arable land — пахотная земля, arable farming — земледелие

pastoral [пастушеский] farming [‘p??st?r?l] скотоводство = cattle-breeding, cattle-raising, cattle-rearing, stock-breeding; cattle husbandry

dairy cattle молочный скот

beef cattle мясной скот

mixed farming смешанное (неспециализированное / многоотраслевое) сельское хозяйство

horticulture [‘h??t?k?l??] садоводство

ornamental plant [???n?’ment?l pl??nt] декоративное растение

market gardening овощи, фрукты, цветы, выращиваемые для продажи — the business of growing fruit and vegetables on a commercial scale

viticulture [‘v?t??k?l??] виноградарство, витикультура — the science, art, or process of cultivating grapevines

oat [?ut] овёс — a cereal plant cultivated chiefly in cool climates and widely used for animal feed as well as human consumption = oats — Oats are a cereal crop or its grains, used for making biscuits or a food called porridge, or for feeding animals.

sugar beet [‘?ug? bi?t] сахарная свёкла

rape [re?p] рапс — вид травянистых растений рода Капуста семейства Капустные (Крестоцветные). Важное масличное растение; экономическое значение рапса к концу XX века существенно выросло в связи с тем, что он начал использоваться для получения биодизеля.

What is farming?

It is the growing of crops and the rearing of animals.

Farming contributed ?5.6 billion to the UK economy in 2006. The total area of agricultural land in 2006 was 18.7 million hectares, about 77 per cent of the total land area in the United Kingdom (excluding inland water).

Farming in Britain has changed a great deal in the last 30 years. Farming used to employ a great many people in Britain but nowadays, with machinery, a few people can run a huge farm of thousands of hectares.

Agriculture provides around 60 per cent of Britain’s food needs even though it employs just 1.4 per cent of the country’s labour force. Britain’s agriculture is under pressure to change at the moment. Farmers are under pressure to adopt more environmentally friendly methods such as organic farming. Organic farming does not use artificial chemicals that can damage the environment and human health. Its popularity has grown rapidly in recent years.

Agriculture Products

cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish

There are many types of farming in Britain.

Different types of farming occur in different regions of Britain. This is due to the influence of relief, climate (especially precipitation and temperature), soil type and to an extent closeness to the market. Upland areas generally lend themselves to sheep farming. Flat areas to crop production and wet/warm areas to milk and beef production.

Some parts of Britain have excellent soil for crops, while others are used for cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry.

In the north-west of England, Wales and Scotland, farmers keep cattle and sheep. Sheep can survive the cold winters on the hills and moors.

In the south-west of England, the rich grass is ideal for feeding dairy cows.

In the south-east of England and the lowlands of Scotland, grain, potatoes and sugar beet are grown.

In the east of England (East Anglia), wheat, barley and vegetables grow in enormous fields.

Types of Farming:

  • arable (growing of crops and cereals)

The UK is the fourth largest producer of cereal and oilseed crops in the EU (after France, Germany and Poland) accounting for about 8% of total EU production.

  • pastoral (rearing and production of animals including pigs, chickens, hill farming sheep, beef and dairy cattle)
  • mixed farming (combination of arable and pastoral)
  • horticulture (production of flowers, fruit, vegetables or ornamental plants)
  • market gardening (production of fruit and vegetables)
  • viticulture (grapes).

Principal crops:

  • wheat, (the most widely grown arable crop in the UK)
  • barley,
  • oats,
  • potatoes,
  • sugar beet, (The UK is the fifth largest producer of sugar beet)
  • vegetables,
  • oil seed rape,
  • fruits.

Livestock products:

  • poultry,
  • sheep,
  • cattle,
  • milk,
  • meat,
  • eggs,
  • wool.

Источник: http://resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk

UK Farmingan introduction

 

Vocabulary

 

rainfall [‘re?nf??l] осадки, количество осадков — to measure rainfall — измерять количество осадков annual / yearly rainfall — годовое количество осадков average rainfall — среднее количество осадков

plough [plau] плуг; вспахивать, пахать

soil [s??l] почва, грунт, земля — the upper layer of earth in which plants grow, a black or dark brown material typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay, and rock particles

conventional [k?n’ven?n?l] обычный, обыкновенный, традиционный; общепринятый

integrated [‘?nt?gre?t?d] объединенный; комплексный; единый

sustainability [s??ste?n?’b?l?t?] устойчивость; устойчивое развитие

input [‘?nput] (обычно inputs) вложения, затраты, инвестиции

pesticide [‘pest?sa?d] пестицид, средство для борьбы с вредителями [pest — вредитель, паразит]

casual employment временная [непостоянная] занятость (форма занятности, для которой характерна нерегулярная работа, как правило периодами до нескольких недель) Syn:

ditch [d??] канава, ров — deep ditch — глубокая канава 2) канал

meadow [‘med?u] луг, луговина; низина, пойменная земля

copse [k?ps] молодой лесок, поросль — A copse is a small group of trees growing very close to each other.

habitat [‘h?b?t?t] место обитания, местообитание, ареал (животного, растения) natural habitat — естественная среда обитания

 

Types of farming:

The climate and topography of the UK lends itself to two distinct types of farming.

Pastoral farming (the use of grass pasture for livestock rearing) is found in areas of higher rainfall and among the hills, predominantly to the north and west of the UK.

Arable farming (land that can be ploughed to grow crops) is concentrated in the south and east of the UK where the climate is drier and soils are deeper.

Farming systems:

In the UK there are three main approaches adopted by farmers in their farming system. These are defined as organic, conventional and integrated. Organic farming represents around 4% of the farmed area and is based upon the concept of sustainability utilising the farm’s own resources. Conventional farming adopts modern technology and utilises other inputs such as pesticides and artificial fertilisers while integrated farming makes the conventional approach sustainable. Most conventional farmers practice integrated farming.

Media characterisation of the UK’s farming systems has widely depicted organic farming as good with conventional as bad. This simplification misses the point as in practice a cross over of approaches exist on most farms.

Farms, farmers and the workforce:

In the UK there are approximately 300,000 active farms with an average size of around 57 hectares, much larger than the European average size of approximately 20 hectares.

In 2006 the UK farming employed workforce (full-time, part-time and casual employees) amounted to 184,000 persons.

Farming and the environment:

Farmers are responsible for managing around 75% of the UK’s surface area and for maintaining many features that are inherrently perceived as «countryside». Whether they be, hedges, ditches, meadows or copses, all have resulted from centuries of farming activity and today they are closely integrated into farming practice. Regretably this has not always been the case. In the 1970’s and 80’s farmers responded to government incentives to become more efficient often destroying habitats and countryside features in the process.

 

http://www.ukagriculture.com/uk_farming.cfm