legal system [‘li?g?l ‘s?st?m] 1) законодательство 2) правовая система, система законов, судебная система
law [l??] 1) закон 2) право 3) законодательство
case [ke?s] судебное дело; случай, прецедент
criminal law уголовное право
reprehensible [?repr?’hens?bl] достойный порицания, осуждения, предосудительный
punishment [‘p?n??m?nt] кара, наказание
civil law [‘s?vl] гражданское право
resolution [rez?’lu??n] 1) резолюция 2) решение, разрешение (спора)
court [k??t] суд
negligence [‘negl???ns] небрежность; невнимательность, халатность
give rise вызывать, давать повод, давать начало
liability [la??’b?l?t?] обязательство, ответственность, долги или денежные обязательства
prosecution [pr?s?’kju??n] а) судебное преследование б) предъявление иска в) (the prosecution) обвинение (сторона в судебном процессе)
criminal court уголовный суд
administrative tribunal [?d’m?n?str?t?v tra?’bju?n?l / tri-] административный суд (специализированный орган административной юстиции)
corporate body корпорация, юридическое лицо, правосубъектная организация
proceedings [pr?’si?d??z] судопроизводство, судебная процедура
injury [‘?n??r?] 1) вред; ущерб; нарушение права другого лица 2) телесное повреждение 3) случайное причинение телесного повреждения
breach [bri??] нарушение (права, закона, договора, обязанности и т.д.) | нарушать (право, закон, договор и т.д.)
failure [‘fe?lj?] 1) неисполнение, несовершение; бездействие 2) неплатёжеспособность; прекращение платежей
civil justice гражданское судопроизводство
county court [‘kaunt? ‘k??t] суд графства (в Великобритании)
High Court (of Justice) [ha? ‘k??t (?v’??st?s)] Высокий суд (правосудия) (входит в состав Верховного суда Великобритании)
sheriff court (in Scotland) a judicial court for civil cases, equivalent to a county court
claim [kle?m] требование; право требования; претензия; заявление права; правопритязание; рекламация; иск | требовать; заявлять претензию; притязать; заявлять право; искать (в суде)
undefended divorce развод при согласии на него со стороны ответчика
appeal [?’pi?l] апелляция, апелляционная жалоба; обжалование | апеллировать, подавать апелляционную жалобу; обжаловать
first instance первая инстанция
Court of Appeal апелляционный суд
criminal offence уголовное преступление
shoplift [‘??pl?ft] красть в магазине с открытых прилавков, выносить товар неоплаченным (например, под одеждой)
community service а) общественные работы (вид наказания за незначительные правонарушения)
premeditated [pri?’med?te?t?d] заранее обдуманный; преднамеренный, предумышленный
brutal [‘bru?tl] бесчеловечный, жестокий, зверский
prosecute [‘pr?s?kju?t] а) (prosecute for) преследовать в судебном или уголовном порядке б) выступать в качестве обвинителя в) предъявлять иск
Crown Prosecution Service CPS Служба уголовного преследования (правительственное ведомство, основанное в 1885 г. для обеспечения работы директора государственного обвинения; в компетенцию ведомства входят ведение дел по любым уголовным преступлениям за исключением тех, которые попадают под юрисдикцию Бюро по борьбе с мошенничеством в особо крупных размерах)
to bring a case before (into) the court представлять дело в суд
magistrates‘ court суд магистратов (рассматривает дела о мелких уголовных и гражданских преступлениях)
Crown Court Суд короны (уголовное отделение Высокого суда правосудия, наряду с Апелляционным судом и Высоким судом входит в Верховный суд Англии и Уэльса
Central Criminal Court [,sentr?l’kr?m?nl,k??t] Центральный уголовный суд (по делам о преступлениях, совершённых за пределами Великобритании, расположен в Лондоне, в здании Олд-Бейли (по названию улицы))
offender [?’fend?] преступник, правонарушитель
youth court a court of law responsible for the trial of young offenders, (in the UK) replacing the former juvenile courts
comprise [k?m’pra?z] включать; заключать в себе, содержать
force [f??s] полицейский корпус, полицейское подразделение
Chief Constable [‘k?nst?bl] старший констебль (начальник местной полиции в городе, графстве или каком-л. др. административно-территориальной единице, за исключением районов Большого Лондона, где существует особая система правоохранительных органов)
Commissioner [k?’m???n?] комиссар (полиции)
City of London Police Городская [Столичная] полиция (официальное название полиции Лондонcкого Сити; действует с 1839 г., имеющего собственную полицию)
Commissioner of Police (of the Metropolis) комиссар (Столичной) полиции, глава Столичной полиции [Metropolitan Police Force] (назначается монархом по рекомендации министра внутренних дел [Home Secretary] и подчинён последнему)
policing полицейская охрана общественного порядка; полицейское патрулирование
barrister [‘b?r?st?] барристер; адвокат, имеющий право выступать в высших судах (отличается от обычного адвоката тем, что не ведет дело с самого начала, а получает все материалы незадолго до суда)
crown prosecutor прокурор, государственный обвинитель
retain [r?’te?n] удерживать, сохранять, оставить
headquarters штаб-квартира, руководство (организации); главный офис (фирмы)
Official Secrets Act (in the UK) the legislation that controls access to confidential information important for national security
sentencing вынесение приговора; назначение наказания
deliver [d?’l?v?] выносить (решение)
discharge [d?s’????] реабилитация, оправдание (подсудимого)
monetary [‘m?n?t(?)r?] денежный
custodial sentence приговор к лишению свободы; наказание, связанное с лишением свободы
administer [?d’m?n?st?] применять (нормы права), отправлять (правосудие)
repeat(ed) offender повторно совершивший преступление; рецидивист
mandatory [‘m?nd?t?r?] обязательный, принудительный
community sentence a sentence whereby an offender is required to perform community service
defendant [d?’fend?nt] ответчик; обвиняемый, подсудимый
conviction [k?n’v?k?n] осуждение, признание виновным
Court of Criminal Appeal уголовный апелляционный суд (ныне — уголовное отделение апелляционного суда)
higher court суд вышестоящей инстанции
lay magistrate мировой судья
Justice of the Peace мировой судья (in Britain) a lay magistrate, whose function is to preserve the peace in his area, and perform miscellaneous administrative duties
Lord Chancellor лорд-канцлер (спикер палаты лордов и высшее судебное должностное лицо)
advisory committee совещательный комитет; консультативный комитет
jurisdiction отправление правосудия; юрисдикция
conclusion [k?n’klu???n] решение (суда)
district judge районный судья; местный судья
bench (скамья) суд, судьи, судебное присутствие, состав суда или арбитража
jury [‘?u?r?] присяжные, состав присяжных; коллегия присяжных; суд присяжных
domestic proceeding семейные дела, производство по семейным делам
There are three judicial systems in the UK, one for England and Wales, a second for Scotland and a third for Northern Ireland. Most law comes from statutes passed by the Westminster or Scottish Parliament, but some may arise from European Union law.
The law is divided broadly into two categories: civil and criminal.
Criminal law is concerned with actions that the law regards as reprehensible and for which it sets a given punishment.
Civil law on the other hand, involves disputes between individuals or companies, where appropriate resolution is left to the court hearing the case. This can be an order to perform a particular obligation under a contract, compensation for failure to perform a contractual obligation, or compensation for negligence.
In certain cases, a particular action can give rise to civil as well as criminal liability. In a road traffic accident, for instance, the person responsible for a crash will be liable to those injured in the accident and will have to compensate them for their losses. There could also be a prosecution in the criminal courts if this person was driving without due care and attention, or was under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
There are two main sets of courts, civil and criminal, as well as a range of administrative tribunals and other courts which deal with matters specifically referred to them. These include the employment tribunals, VAT tribunals, the charity tribunal, and the immigration tribunals.
Civil cases are concerned with disputes between one person or corporate body and another. These include, for instance, neighbour disputes, divorce proceedings and personal injury cases, as well as cases between companies such as breach of contract or failure to pay.
Civil justice is delivered mainly by county courts and the High Court in England, and the sheriff court in Scotland. These courts will deal with claims such as landlord and tenant disputes, consumer claims, lower level personal injury cases, undefended divorce cases, and debt problems.
Appeals from these first instance courts are usually to the Court of Appeal in London. Where cases raise important points of law or principle, there can be a further appeal to the House of Lords.
Criminal offences are breaches of the law for which there is a set punishment, ranging from a small fine to jail depending on the seriousness of the offence. For instance, shoplifting can be punished by a mere warning or community service, while premeditated or brutal crime will often result in life imprisonment.
Most of the time criminal cases are brought against individuals but it is also possible, in certain circumstances, to prosecute companies.
To bring a case the police will gather together sufficient evidence to allow the Crown Prosecution Service to bring a case.
Criminal cases involving minor offences are brought before the magistrates’ courts. The Crown Court hears the more serious cases as well as appeals from the magistrates’ courts. The most famous Crown Court building is the Central Criminal Court, in London, commonly known as the Old Bailey.
Offenders under 18 years of age are tried in the Youth Courts.
England and Wales’ police service comprise 43 forces maintained by local police authorities. A Chief Constable (or Commissioner of the City of London Police and the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police in London), is appointed to head each force. The objectives of each individual force are set by consultations between the community and chief constables to ensure the policing is in line with local requirements. All forces are also set objectives by the government.
The Crown Prosecution Service
The Crown Prosecution Service is responsible for all prosecutions arising from police investigations. Nearly one and a half million cases are handled each year. In the magistrates’ courts, lawyers for the Crown Prosecution Service conduct the daily list of prosecutions.
In the Crown Court, cases are presented by barristers who appear on behalf of the service. The organisation is divided into four regions, comprising 31 areas. Each area is handled by a Chief Crown Prosecutor.
Certain cases which require specialist attention are retained by the Headquarters in London, such as breaches of the Official Secrets Act and terrorism and race relations cases.
Sentencing and appeals
If a court believes an offender is guilty of the crime in which he has been charged, it will deliver a sentence it believes appropriate to the crime. There are four types of sentences:
- Discharge: this can be without any conditions or conditional on no further criminal activity from the offender.
- Monetary sentence: this includes any fines or compensation the offender is required to pay
- Custodial sentence (prison): this is the most severe punishment the courts can administer. The offender will be required to spend time in prison, the length of which is dependent on the crime – some repeat offenders will be given a mandatory minimum sentence.
- Community sentence: previously known as community service, the community sentence requires the offender to work a certain number of hours unpaid in the community.
Defendants may apply to the Crown Court to appeal an earlier decision made by a magistrates’ court regarding their conviction or their sentencing. To dispute a point of law, appeals can be made to the High Court. Appeals in Scotland are made to the Scottish Court of Criminal Appeal.
The majority of criminal cases begin in the magistrates’ court, even if they are afterwards passed on to and dealt with by a higher court. The vast majority of criminal prosecutions are, however, dealt with in these courts.
Lay magistrates, Justices of the Peace or JPs, are unpaid and appointed by the Lord Chancellor on the recommendation of local advisory committees. These magistrates can normally only exercise their jurisdiction when two or more of them are present, although single justices have substantial powers now for managing cases prior to trial or other conclusion.
In London and other large urban areas, there are now paid magistrates, known as ‘District Judges (Magistrates’ Court)’, who are professional lawyers, and who, when sitting alone, exercise the jurisdiction of a bench of justices.
There are no juries in magistrates’ courts. In general, a magistrates’ court is limited to passing a sentence of six months’ imprisonment and to imposing fines and other minor punishments. Provisions exist, however, whereby the justices can send a person who is convicted before them to the higher court if they consider that their sentencing power is inadequate in his or her case. Similarly, after a preliminary hearing, more serious criminal offences are also sent on to the higher court.
Magistrates’ courts also have a civil jurisdiction which includes ‘domestic proceedings’ (adoption and care proceedings, separation, maintenance, affiliation and guardianship); the granting of liquor, betting and gaming licences; the settlement of certain disputes between employers and employees; and the enforcement of the payment of local rates and of income tax. Cases involving children can be transferred to the high courts where they are of sufficient complexity or importance or there is need to avoid delay or link up related proceedings.
In dealing with cases concerning children between the ages of 10 and 14 inclusive and young people of 15 to 17 brought before the court in criminal proceedings, magistrates sit as youth courts (formerly known as ‘juvenile courts’).
Magistrates who sit in the youth court must be members of a panel appointed from among those in the division who are considered specially qualified for dealing with cases involving young people. Up to three magistrates may sit as a youth court and must include a man and a woman.
If a child or young person is charged jointly with an adult, the matter comes before an ordinary magistrates’ court. If the young person is found guilty, that court may remit the case to the youth court, unless it makes a minor order.
For young people aged 10 to 15 the youth justice system aims to encourage parents to take responsibility for their children in the prevention of offending. Parents are required to attend any criminal proceedings where the child or young person is under 16. For children and young people aged 10 to 15 parents will be ordered to pay monetary orders; for those aged 16 to 17 they may be ordered to do so.
The court must consider imposing a Parenting Order to any offender under 16. Parenting orders can consist of two elements: first for the parent or guardian to attend counselling or guidance sessions, and second, a requirement to encourage the parent or guardian to exercise control over the child.
The court will usually consider a report on the offender from the Youth Offending Team before deciding what sentence to pass.
The Crown Court is presided over by a High Court judge or by a circuit judge or recorder, depending on the seriousness of the case.
It sits at any place and any time determined by the Lord Chancellor. When the Crown Court sits in the City of London it is properly called the Central Criminal Court, though it is more commonly known as the Old Bailey.
In contested trials (where the offender pleads ‘not guilty’), judges sit with a jury. In other cases, such as appeals from magistrates’ courts, the judge or recorder usually sits with between two and four JPs.
Circuit judges must be barristers of at least ten years’ standing or recorders who have held that office for at least three years. A recorder, who acts as a part-time judge, can either be a barrister or a solicitor of at least ten years’ standing.
Appeals from the Crown Court may be made to the Court of Appeal Criminal Division. In addition to criminal cases, the Crown Court also hears certain appeals in civil cases which originated in the magistrates’ court or elsewhere.
Most civil cases which are brought in England and Wales are dealt with by the county courts. These courts, of which there are 218, are constituted under the County Courts Act 1984. Each county court has one or more circuit judges assigned to it in addition to one or more district judges. Judicial appointments are by the Judicial Appointments Commission.
Under the High Court and County Courts Jurisdiction Order 1991, all personal injury cases worth up to ?50,000 must start in a county court. Other claims involving debt or damages may generally start in a county court, whatever their value.
The county courts also deal with landlord and tenant disputes; undefended and most defended matrimonial cases such as divorce, nullity and disputes about children (adoption and care proceedings) whether or not the parents are married; maintenance in divorce proceedings; and disputes over consumer credit agreements.
Cases started in a county court may be transferred up to the High Court for trial, providing they are of sufficient substance, importance or complexity. Similarly, cases started in the High Court may be transferred down to a county court if they do not meet the criterion for High Court trial.
Cases involving children can be transferred up or down where they are of sufficient complexity, importance, or there is a need to avoid delay or link up related proceedings. There is a simplified procedure for bringing small claims up to ?5,000 before the court. This makes it easier for a person to bring a claim before a county court without any legal knowledge or professional assistance. This procedure is slightly different in Scotland.
Among other duties, they judge small claims and hear ancillary applications. They may also hear trials of claims up to ?15,000. A circuit judge or district judge has power to commit a person to prison for up to two years or to fine him or her up to ?5,000 for contempt or misbehaviour in court. Appeals on points of law or upon the admission or rejection of any evidence, and sometimes on questions of fact, may be made to the Court of Appeal.
The High Court
The High Court of Justice is one of the three branches of the Supreme Court, the others being the Court of Appeal and the Crown Court.
The High Court has three divisions:
- Queen’s Bench Division, which deals mainly with claims for damages, breach of contracts, actions arising out of civil wrongs such as defamation and wrongful arrest and administrative law;
- Chancery Division, which is principally concerned with matters of trust, injunctions, property, company and bankruptcy matters;
- Family Division, which has jurisdiction for matrimonial matters, wardship and guardianship, adoption and care proceedings, international matters such as child abduction and proceedings relating to maintenance and matrimonial property.
The Court of Appeal
This court has two divisions, civil and criminal, and hears appeals from any of the three divisions of the High Court as well as from the lower courts. The court has 28 judges called ‘Lords Justices’.
The Lord Chancellor, the Lord Chief Justice, the Master of the Rolls, the President of the Family Division and the Vice-Chancellor are ex officio judges of this court.
House of Lords
The ultimate appellate court for all UK courts is the House of Lords. The permission of the Court of Appeal or of the House of Lords itself is necessary before an appeal can be taken to the House.
A coroner is an independent judicial officer of the law whose main responsibility is to enquire into all cases in which there is reasonable cause to suspect that a person has died either a violent or an unnatural death, or has died a sudden death of which the cause is unknown, or has died in prison, or has died in certain other prescribed circumstances.
The coroner’s function is to establish who the deceased person was, and how, when and where s/he died. It is not part of the coroner’s duty to apportion blame or determine questions of civil liability.
Cases may be brought to the coroner’s notice by the registrar of deaths, by the police, by hospital authorities, by medical practitioners, by relatives of the deceased or by members of the public.
The coroner takes full responsibility for the conduct of any enquiries into any death reported to him or her. There is a coroner’s court for every part of England and Wales.
Tribunals deal mostly – though not exclusively – with matters about which a citizen is in conflict with a government department or other public body. They are a means by which a decision may be taken or reviewed outside and independently of the department or body concerned.
Some tribunals have a detailed code of procedure, others operate in a less formal way. In most cases, there is provision for appeal, whether to an appellate tribunal, a minister or the courts.